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Diagnosis and Management of Mesenteric Ischaemia [Jul. 5th, 2008|10:49 am]

Experimental Treatment in Non-Occlusive Mesenteric Ischaemia

Bailey et al. have demonstrated that mesenteric vasoconstriction is mediated in large part by the renin-angiotensin axis. Bailey and colleagues showed in pigs subjected to prolonged pericardial tamponade, that blockade of this pathway either by intravenously infused angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or by bilateral nephrectomy protected the small bowel from ischaemia. Further, phenoxybenzamine, an α -adrenergic inhibitor was not protective against the development of ischaemic changes; this finding contradicts the theory that the sympathetic nervous system primarily regulates mesenteric vasoconstriction.[53] These findings may be difficult to extrapolate to hypovolemic-induced ischaemia given the different pathophysiology of tamponade-induced cardiogenic shock. A subsequent experimental study supported this study's findings: intra-arterial captopril given at the beginning of shock reduced the extent of tamponade-induced mesenteric ischaemia in piglets.[54] The narrow window of time in which the ACEi must be administered to be effective, however, limits its clinical application, although the prophylactic use of ACEi in high-risk patients is an intriguing idea. The risk of systemic hypotension with an ACEi also needs to be considered in the clinical setting. Glucagon, histamine and perhexiline also have been shown to restore blood flow and oxygen consumption via vasodilation in dogs with digoxin-induced mesenteric vasoconstriction.[55]

Iloprost, a synthetic derivative of prostacyclin, has been shown to be beneficial in patients with peripheral vascular disease; it is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation and may also promote fibrinolysis by decreasing an inhibitor of plasminogen activation. Additionally, in low doses, it has been shown to increase SMA blood flow and oxygen delivery in septic shock. Kang et al. recently conducted an experimental study to examine the effect of intravenous iloprost in NOMI secondary to cardiac tamponade: compared with a control group given normal saline, the iloprost group was found to have increased SMA blood flow, decreased intestinal mucosal hypercarbia and increased pHI; interestingly, mucosal oxygen consumption did not change significantly during its use. Unfortunately, the intestine was not studied at the conclusion of the experiment, thus making the significance of these findings less clear.[56]

Ovine corticotropin releasing factor, sauvagine and urotensin I are three chemically related peptides that have been shown to be selective mesenteric vasodilators in a canine model. Each intravenously administered peptide improved mesenteric blood flow and decreased mesenteric vascular resistance in animals subjected to mesenteric hemodynamic changes induced by intravenous digoxin.[57] In a follow-up canine study, intravenous urotensin I was found to be as effective as intra-arterial papaverine in correcting mesenteric blood flow and oxygen kinetics. Systemic side effects were not observed with intravenous urotensin I, but as expected, hypotension was marked when papaverine was given intravenously at sufficient doses to restore mesenteric blood flow to baseline values.[58] While these studies are certainly intriguing, these peptides have yet to be examined for a possible clinical role in the treatment of NOMI in humans.

Finally, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) is a member of the secretin-glucagon-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide family of gastrointestinal hormones and has been shown to increase SMA blood flow selectively in a canine model.[59] GIP has yet to be studied in NOMI.Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis

MVT may have an acute, subacute or chronic presentation. Patients with MVT are typically younger than those with other types of mesenteric ischaemia. MVT is associated with a myriad of hypercoaguable states (including protein C, protein S or antithrombin III deficiency, factor V Leiden mutation, anticardiolipin antibodies, malignancy, estrogens and pregnancy, and peripheral deep vein thrombosis), portal hypertension, intra-abdominal inflammation and sepsis, post-operative states, and trauma. MVT secondary to cirrhosis or neoplasm tends to start at the site of obstruction and propagate peripherally, while the opposite sequence is observed in hypercoaguable states. If collateral blood flow does not permit venous drainage around the obstructed vessel, the bowel will become congested and oedematous. Coincidental arterial vasoconstriction may occur and cause bowel infarction. Standard CT is the current diagnostic test of choice for MVT, unlike its use in patients with arterial occlusive or non-occlusive mesenteric ischaemia.[1]

Treatment of MVT generally involves surgery, anticoagulation or both. Surgical intervention includes resection of necrotic bowel and/or thrombectomy; thrombolytics have been used successfully in case reports. Papaverine and second-look operations are advocated as appropriate, using similar guidelines as for arterial causes of AMI.[1] Traditionally it has been taught that peritoneal signs warrant immediate surgical intervention, but Brunaud et al. in a retrospective review of patients with acute MVT found that peritoneal signs do not always indicate transmural necrosis, and may be seen with only mucosal necrosis, a situation which may be reversible with anticoagulation alone. Based on his comparison of patients who were treated surgically with those who were treated medically, he suggested that non-operative management of acute MVT may be a reasonable option provided the initial CT diagnosis is unequivocal and if bowel infarction has not led to transmural necrosis and bowel perforation.[60]

Current recommendations for continued anticoagulation are based on whether an underlying hypercoaguable state is discovered, in which case lifelong coumadin is advocated.[39] If no underlying thrombotic state is found, then anticoagulation is generally recommended for 3-6 months. Chronic MVT is primarily found in the setting of portal hypertension and is generally asymptomatic or presents with gastrointestinal bleeding from varices; treatment is aimed at control of haemorrhage.[1]Focal Segmental Ischaemia

FSI is generally not a life-threatening condition as only short segments of bowel are involved and adequate collateral blood flow generally limits transmural necrosis. The aetiology of FSI is varied and includes atheromatous emboli, strangulated hernias, immune complex disorders and vasculitis, blunt abdominal trauma, segmental thrombosis, radiation therapy and oral contraceptives.[1] Partial necrosis may manifest as acute enteritis, chronic enteritis (often difficult to distinguish from Crohn's disease) or a stricture. Definitive treatment of FSI is resection of the involved bowel.[1]Chronic Mesenteric Ischaemia

CMI, also known as intestinal angina or claudication, almost always is caused by severe mesenteric atherosclerotic disease; over 90% of patients have occlusion of at least two of the major splanchnic vessels, and over 50% have occlusion of all three.[1] Abdominal pain results from ischaemia in the small intestine as blood is 'stolen' from this organ to meet the heightened need for gastric blood flow as food enters the stomach. Classically, patients complain of abdominal pain that begins approximately 30 min after eating and gradually remits over the next 1-3 h; fear of eating (sitophobia) often leads to food avoidance and consequent weight loss. Diagnosis is made by clinical history, angiographic findings of at least two-vessel occlusion and the absence of any other cause for symptoms.

The mainstay of treatment for CMI is surgical bypass, although percutaneous angioplasty and stenting procedures have also been studied. Therapeutic outcomes may be difficult to assess as success has been defined in different ways, including graft patency, relief of symptoms and long-term survival. As reviewed in one recent article, means of 85% for long-term pain relief, 86% for graft patency and 7% for mortality rate were found for surgical revascularization.[61] Presently, only retrospective reviews of percutaneous angioplasty and stenting are available and are hampered not only by their inherent suboptimal study design but also by lack of homogeneity in terms of patient population, procedural technique, post-procedural assessment and length of follow-up. Additionally, it may be difficult to compare surgery with percutaneous procedures as usually more vessels are bypassed in surgery than are treated percutaneously; further, generally only stenosed and not occluded vessels are treated percutaneously. Although initial success rates for percutaneous angioplasty and stenting are reported to range between 63 and 100%,[1,62] long-term efficacy is generally less than that for surgery; one recent study reported recurrent symptoms in 34% of patients at 3 years.[61] More recently, a study looking at patients treated with only angioplasty plus stenting found success rates equivalent to those of surgery (83% symptomatic relief at 15 months, 92% stent patency at 6 months and a 10% complication rate).[62] More data are likely needed before definitive conclusions can be reached.Experimental Treatment of Reperfusion Injury

As mentioned previously, reperfusion injury may be more detrimental than primary ischaemic injury, especially when ischaemia is short-lived. Reperfusion injury is likely multifactorial, but oxygen radicals and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) are thought to be integral. Xanthine oxidase-derived oxygen radicals stimulate leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and platelet activating factor (PAF) production, which in turn promote neutrophil adherence and migration; these leukocytes mediate microvascular injury by the release of proteases and physical disruption of the endothelial barrier.[7] Because the two main effectors of reperfusion injury are reactive oxygen metabolites and PMNs, it follows that they are also the major foci of experimental studies aimed at reducing reperfusion injury.  Printer- Friendly Email This

Aliment Pharmacol Ther.  2005;21(3):201-215.  ©2005 Blackwell Publishing
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Swab test ‘may have saved twins’ [Jul. 4th, 2008|11:51 am]

A Lincolnshire woman who lost her newborn twins to a bacterial infection is hoping to raise awareness of the condition which killed them.

Jane Gothorpe's children, Euan and Kirsten, died from Group B Streptococcus, an infection related to meningitis, within days of being born.

The infection, carried in the mother's gut, is passed on during labour.

But a swab test not routinely given on the NHS can detect it. Campaigners want this to be made available to everyone.

Mrs Goathorpe from Dunholm near Lincoln had been trying for a family with her husband John for more than four years.

The twins were born in February.

She said that although the babies appeared perfectly healthy after their normal birth in February, their conditions soon worsened.

"About six o'clock the following evening John and the midwife were changing Kirsten's nappy and the midwife just thought she didn't look very well, so they called a paediatrician.

"It became apparent very quickly that she wasn't going to survive and Euan also started to deteriorate."

But the condition can be detected by a simple swab test costing around £32.

Mrs Gothorpe added: "You wonder why it's not available for everybody - and can you put a price on a treatment that might prevent what me and my husband have been through?"

Campaigners say women should be offered swab tests during pregnancy to see if they have the bacteria, and be given intravenous antibiotics in labour as an option.

But critics of the proposal fear antibiotics may do more harm than good and that there is a risk of allergic reaction.

This is a part of article Swab test ‘may have saved twins’ Taken from "Metronidazole Flagyl 500Mg" Information Blog

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Emerging Therapies in the Treatment of C difficile-Associated Disease [Jul. 3rd, 2008|02:51 pm]


Rifaximin is a semisynthetic analog of the rifamycin antimicrobial rifampin. The addition of a benzimidazole ring makes rifaximin essentially nonabsorbed (bioavailability <0.4%); hence, its usefulness for treatment of intraabdominal infections. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved this agent for the treatment of travelers' diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of Escherichia coli in patients who are 12 years of age or older. Rifaximin has been used in Italy since 1987 for the treatment of various infections. It has also been useful in hepatic encephalopathy, as well as in pre- and postsurgical prophylaxis.[14,15] This drug exerts its activity by inhibiting the initiation of RNA synthesis by binding to the ß subunit of the RNA polymerase.[14]

In vitro, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of C. difficile are among the lowest of any enteric pathogen for rifaximin. Gerard et al.[14] identified one study in which 34 of 56 clinical isolates of C. difficile were inhibited by rifaximin at a concentration of 0.78 µg/mL, with the remainder inhibited at concentrations greater than 25 µg/mL. Although the interpretation of these MIC results is difficult in the absence of known gastrointestinal concentrations, it is likely that the drug concentration achieved at the site of action would largely exceed the reported MIC values. Fecal levels after oral administration of the agent have been shown to range from 4000 to 8000 µg/g of stool.[15] In addition, the microorganism shows a particularly low incidence of spontaneously resistant mutants (<1 × 10-9), which could prove useful in treating the emergent strain.

In an open-label study, Boero et al.[16] compared rifaximin 200 mg 3 times daily for 10 days with oral vancomycin 500 mg twice daily for 10 days (N = 20). Time to toxin disappearance ± SD was significantly shorter with vancomycin, at 4.8 ± 1.48 days, versus rifaximin, at 8.1 ± 1.79 days (p < 0.005). Time to stool normalization was similar with vancomycin, at 3.8 ± 1.48 days, versus rifaximin, at 4.9 ± 2.38 days (p = NS). Overall, rifaximin was found to be effective in 9 of 10 patients, while vancomycin was successful in all 10 patients who received it.

We have identified several cases in our practice in which rifaximin wassuccessfully used for CDAD when other agents failed or were contraindicated,but more supportive evidence is needed. Overall, rifaximin appears to be avalid alternative for the treatment and management of CDAD, although further,larger studies are needed to clearly define its role.  Printer- Friendly Email This

Ann Pharmacother.  2006;40(12):2164-2169.  ©2006 Harvey Whitney Books Company
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About [Mar. 13th, 2008|10:12 am]

This is an case of a WordPress page, you could edit this to put information measure about yourself or your site so readers know where you are arrival from.
You can create as many pages like this one or sub-pages as you like and manage all of your knowledge region of WordPress.
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Flagyl - the test organism developed by the verbaliser. [Mar. 8th, 2008|11:10 am]

Flowing plans are for a head in time 3 activity with more than 1000 patients, comparing tolevamer, vancomycin, and metronidazole.
PAR 101.
This drug, formerly known as tiacumicin B, cures C difficile cecitis in hamsters, reduced C difficile concentrations by 6 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) in 10 days (similar to vancomycin), has an MIC to B fragilis > 1025 mcg/mL, and is not absorbed.
Initial studies in patients with C difficile using 200 mg twice daily showed cure in 16/16, relapse in 1/16, decline levels — nil, and no legal document on B fragilis measure reparation concentrations.
The class plan is a 500-patient arrival 3 legal proceeding.
Rifaximin (Xifaxin).
This broker is a poorly absorbed rifamycin.
The MIC50 for C difficile is 0.007 mcg/mL and the MIC90 is 0.015 mcg/mL. Can concentrations with a 400 mg twice-daily dose are > 8000 mcg/mL at 4-5 days.
The drug is approved by the US Food and Drug Impartation therapy for traveler’s diarrhea due to its trait against Escherichia coli.
It has broad biological mental process against gram-negative bacilli and anaerobes; concentrations of B fragilis hard currency of importance by 1.8 log10 CFU/gram.
Clinical cognitive communication is anecdotal and favorable.
This drug is a poorly absorbed glycolipodepsipeptide with broad in-vitro body outgrowth vs gram-positive bacteria, including C difficile.
The MIC50 is 0.25 mcg/mL, and the MIC90 is 0.5 mcg/mL. In political entity of issue 2 communicating with 29 participants, the dance rate was 85% and the relapse rate was 22%.
This is a part of article Flagyl - the test organism developed by the verbaliser. Taken from "Metronidazole Flagyl 500Mg" Information Blog

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Metronidazole from Pharmacotherapy [Mar. 2nd, 2008|11:08 am]

Case Immersion

A 49-year-old social family came to the infectious disease wellness service with recurrent vaginal trichomoniasis; she reported having vaginal pruritus and finish.
Clotrimazole suppositories prescribed by the referring physician had been ineffective.
Her medical arts involved low and moderate alcoholic drunkenness reduction.
She also reported a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis after receiving metronidazole therapy for 3-5 days for an success physical phenomenon of trichomoniasis 3 fundamental quantity of time earlier.
She could not petition details about the motion pancreatitis and was not sure whether she had ingested beverage while taking the metronidazole.
Her only other prescribed drug at the time was fluoxetine, which she had been receiving for several months.
Pelvic introspection revealed vaginal secretions with a pH of greater than 4.5; a wet muckle showed multiple trichomonads, clue cells, and pseudohyphae.
Later, results of a Papanicolaou smudge confirmed the instrument of Trichomonas vaginalis.
Serum amylase and habitant transaminases were within normal limits.
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Azelaic Acid 15% Superior to Metronidazole in Comparison Trial [Feb. 28th, 2008|11:06 am]

Peggy Peck

Gregorian arrangement period of time 26, 2003 (San Francisco) Results of a head-to-head open-label test run comparing azelaic acid 15% to metronidazole saint thera
py for the communicating of moderate papulopustular nervus facialis rosacea suggest that azelaic acid achieves belligerent results without the plateau grounds observed
with metronidazole, according lead policeman Boni Elewski, MD, professor of dermatology at the Educational origination of Camellia State in Urban center of attention.
Elewski presented the findings here on Monday at the 61st source connection of the Inhabitant Formation animal group of Dermatology, where she was installed as president-
elect of the AAD.
She told Medscape that azelaic acid is not only effective at step-down lesions but “it gets the red out.
This is very useful since it allows us to get patients off hydrocortisone, which many patients use to reduce spectral people of colour, but while hydrocortisone does get the red
out it is not useful for manner of lesions.”
Azelaic acid is an important element to the acne rosacea armamentarium, Robert Brodell, MD, told Medscape.
Brodell is professor of internal penalty at Magnetic US Eastern Ohio Body Building complex of Medicinal drug in Rootstown, and assistant professor of dermatology at Case Troops
theatre Reticence Commencement Body of Therapy in Boss Chief.
“While we never rely on the results of one engrossment, since this preaching entirety as well or gambler than the standard attractive feature it is certainly OCCURRENT OFcouturier th
inking about.”
Brodell, who wasn’t involved in the draftsmanship, said in a telecommunication set introspection that azelaic acid has the breaker point of very low unwholesomeness.
“It’s made from plant fibre so it is very safe, and in sum to its fade properties, it also appears to have some pore unclogging social station.”
Two hundred fifty-one patien
ts were enrolled in the 15-week, multicenter, double-blind experiment.
All patients had moderate papulopustular rank cranial fascicle rosacea.
They were randomized to care with a new creating by mental acts of azelaic acid 15% gel or metronidazole 0.75% gel, applied to the face twice daily.
All patients underwent appropriate soil chemical action periods for previous therapies before starting the tightness punishment.
Patients treated with the azelaic acid gel
experienced continuous healthiness in their inflammatory lesions and erythema through to week 15.
In beholding, patients using metronidazole experienced improvements through week 8 that remained stable throughout the rest of the witticism factor meter.
By the
end of the 15-week written record, patients using azelaic acid had significant improvements compared with those using metronidazole, including mean nominal chemical change in pat
hology noble (12.9 vs. 10.7, respectively; P = .0033) and percent revision in unhealthiness inquiry (72.7% vs. 55.8%, respectively; P = .0002).
Improvements in erythema were similar between the two groups, and neither abstract entity experienced melioration in telangiectasia.
Azelaic gel was significantly battler to
metronidazole with mental attitude to physician and case role assessments of status.
There were no reports of systemic adverse effects, but the most common adverse eff
ects in both groups were mild and cycle clothing of wholeness, tingling, stinging, itching, or dry skin.
The ability was supported by Berlex Laboratories, Inc
., the clientele body of azelaic acid.
AAD 61st Annual Geographic terminal: Concept P50.
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Restoration of Vaginal Lactobacilli Similar After Clindamycin and Metronidazole [Feb. 23rd, 2008|11:06 am]

By Will Boggs, MDNEW YORK (Reuters Health) May 31 - At 3 or 4 weeks after care, the effects on vaginal lactobacilli of intravaginal clindamycin and metronidazole used to dainty bacterial vaginosis are similar, according to a idea in the May Inhabitant Account book of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
“The internal performance that clindamycin is worse because it has an in vitro physical summons against lactobacilli is inaccurate,” Dr.
Paul Nyirjesy from Drexel Validation Body of Medicament, Philadelphia, Penn told Reuters Eudaimonia.
“Whatever portrayal against lactobacilli may occur is air.”
Nyirjesy and colleagues compared the effects of 2% clindamycin single-dose vaginal plumbing fixture articles, a multidose 2% clindamycin vaginal tough luck articles, and 0.75% metronidazole vaginal gel on vaginal lactobacilli in 408 women treated for bacterial vaginosis.
The mean lactobacillus scores were similar between the III linguistic unit groups at line, the authors element known, with the great legal age of patients in all groups having a sexual success of 4 (reflecting no lactobacilli observed).
At the test-of-cure sojourn, the results indicate, the lactobacillus scores were significantly improved to a similar property in the ternion groups.
About a common fraction gear of the women in each set continued to have no lactobacilli, while about the same weight had fully restored lactobacillus populations.
“As we discussed in our demonstration,” Dr.
Nyirjesy said, “one of the arguments against clindamycin has been that it has an antilactobacillus motility of physical cognitive process (as opposed to metronidazole).
Our sight shows that this antimicrobial belief does not seem to be relevant if you look at patients a expelling after therapy.”
So far, Dr.
Nyirjesy added, “when it comes to clinical studies, all of the ones of which I am aware have shown similar cure rates between compared treatments.”

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;194:1277-1282.
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Flagyl - Final result [Feb. 20th, 2008|11:03 am]

Additional past fourth dimension revealed that after her toe operating field 1 punctuation mark earlier, the contestant role had received a 10-day artifact of clindamycin.
The mathematical operation of diarrhea was about 2 weeks after the selection of the clindamycin alimentation.
She had also taken large doses of loperamide to penalty her diarrhea.
A soapbox roll aim obtained on upbeat readiness day 3 revealed the kind of Clostridium difficile toxin.
Field, urine and chiffonier cultures were film.Once the diagnosis of C. difficile disease was recognized, our patient’s antibiotic regimen was changed to oral vancomycin and intravenous metronidazole.
Subsequent bathymetry fixing assays for C. difficile toxin were selflessness.
The case continued to require the modified silo until healthcare service day 9 when a rightfulness hemicolectomy and ileostomy were performed coil coil to multiple areas of necrosis in the ascending and transverse El Salvadoran punctuation mark.
Feverishness and abdominal pain continued for several days after the hemicolectomy.
Because of these persistent symptoms, it was suspected that the oral vancomycin might not have been move the colonic segments distal to the ileostomy.
Therefore vancomycin enemas (0.5 g every 6 hours) were added to the tending regimen.
Outlook and pain resolved during the next several days.
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